International tourism in Russia: problems and prospects
Modern international tourism is one of the most developing sectors of the world economy. This is the industry that occupies one of the leading positions in international foreign economic relations, after the oil-producing and engineering industries. He is exit and entry. Outbound tourism is the travel of persons permanently residing in the Russian Federation to another country.Inbound tourism is travel within the Russian Federation of persons not permanently residing in the Russian Federation. This type of tourism develops under the influence of many factors that can be summarized in three groups: demographic, economic, social. International tourism began to develop intensively in the late twentieth century, which had a great impact on the economy of individual countries of the world. After reading the books and articles on tourism, we can conclude that currently tourism is a strong global industry, which occupies a small part of the global gross domestic product [M. Birzhakov, Introduction to Tourism: studies. – SPb .: Ed. house “Gerda”, 2006.], where the main means of production and large masses of employees are used.
The purpose of this study is to determine the development trend of international tourism in general, based on the analysis of statistical indicators and forecasts.
Since the beginning of 2000, there has been an increase in tourism income in world trade in services. The most visited region of the world has become Europe, which is also the main supplier of tourists to other regions of the world. The share of income from foreign tourism in the total amount of income from the export of goods and services is in Spain – 36%, Greece – 37%, Cyprus – 51%. The most visited countries of Europe are: France, Italy, Spain, where tourists leave a considerable amount of money for their holidays. In Spain, tourism provides 12% of GDP, which is the most profitable sector of the economy. Tourists visit Italy to see the sights from the World Heritage List, which have 44 objects in the country. If we compare the rankings of countries in the world in terms of tourist attendance for 2013, we can see that Europe is still the most favorite destination for tourists. According to the forecast for 2020, Europe will be visited by twice as many tourists. It is also possible to predict route movements in other countries of the world. By 2020, the top ten countries will be:
China (without Hong Kong),
Hong Kong (China),
Turkey also has the prerequisites for a more active entry into the global tourist market. It is diverse in natural resources, historical and cultural heritage. Therefore, Turkey is the main rival for European countries in the field of tourism services and active recreation.
At the moment, international tourism has an impact on both political and economic ties in the world community [How to make tourism in Russia profitable? // Tourism: practice, problems, prospects. 2011. No. 3.]. Tourism contributes to changing the national economy. This is also relevant for the development of international tourism in Russia.
For 2006-2007, Russia had great potential in the field of tourism, but world tourist arrivals accounted for only 1%. At that time, our country was a donor of the world tourist market, it could not attract tourists like the way Europe attracted, for example. Therefore, all Russians brought income not to their own country, but to other countries of the world. According to the head of the Federal Agency for Tourism for 2006, Russian tourists annually take out more money abroad, while foreign tourists bring much less to the Russian Federation [Zdorov AB Economy of tourism. -M. : Finance and Statistics, 2007.]. There was a decrease in the demand of foreign citizens for holidays in Russia. In 2005, for the purpose of tourism, almost 17% of foreigners came to Russia less than in 2004.
Every year Russia gained its potential, developed in the field of tourism, attracted by developed programs to support tourism. Such programs were “South of Russia”, “Far East and Transbaikalia” and many others. Began a rapid pace of tourism development. Agrotourism began to develop successfully in the country. The purpose of this type of tourism is voluntary assistance in the management of farms and other farms. In Russia, it is more or less developed in Siberian villages, for example, in the Altai region, Ivanovo, Belgorod, Kaluga regions, the Republic of Buryatia, but is still going to begin to actively develop it in the Krasnodar Territory. This type of tourism is popular abroad, especially among Americans.
For 2013, St. Petersburg, Moscow and the cities of the Golden Ring became the most attractive tourism regions for foreigners. Also, foreign tourists are happy to visit Baikal and Kamchatka. It is also noted that the interest of foreign tourists, primarily tourists from the former Warsaw Pact countries and Scandinavia, to the Krasnodar Territory and, in the near future, to the Caucasian Mineral Waters will be restored. Recently, Russian citizens, as well as foreigners, have begun to be interested in traveling to the Crimea. A large flow of tourists flooded in 2014, which is three times more compared to the same period of 2013. On the Crimean peninsula, you can go to such beautiful historical cities as Yalta, Alupka, Alushta, Yevpatoria. Also for tourists there are trips to the city of Simferopol, in which there are many historical monuments, beautiful and luxurious places, but the city of Feodosia is also famous for its art gallery of the marine artist I.K. Aivazovsky. The list of cities in the Crimea, where you can relax, you can list for a long time, as the Crimea is a paradise for all tourists.
But in Russia, apart from the prospects that were highlighted earlier, there are a number of problems in the development of tourism. These include the fact that prices for services not only in hotels, but also catering are constantly increasing in Russia, so tours to the Russian Federation are becoming more expensive for foreigners, and this does not significantly increase the number of foreign tourists in the Russian Federation. There are also problems with the visa system, weak professional training of tourism industry workers, limited advertising of Russian tourist destinations abroad. But our government is trying to solve all these problems by creating regulatory acts that are aimed at improving relations in the tourism industry, are developing new standards designed to train workers in the tourism business.
In drawing conclusions, one can say that positive trends are already being observed. It remains only to expect that all reforms will be effective, and soon tourism in Russia will correspond to its potential.